Each week for the past four years Skift has been chronicling the latest travel startups to enter the market.

When we began our weekly Skiftseedlings stories on startups in December 2012 the backdrop to the travel startup landscape was different than today. In 2012, most of the world’s major economies were growing and recovering from the global recession of 2007 to 2009. In particular, the rise of mobile led to a flurry of entrepreneurs launching companies that wanted to help travelers plan their trips through mobile apps.

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Four years later, while Airbnb and Uber are grabbing headlines, funding in certain sectors such as hospitality tech has been uneven. Most of the scores of trip-planning startups launched during the past few years have died, according to our analysis of travel startups, because they either ran out of funding or shut down due to lack of user engagement. Skift also found that trip-planning was one of the least funded travel startup categories in 2015.

Trip-planning startups had the daunting task of facing off against incumbents including TripAdvisor, Google, and Yelp, which claim hundreds of millions of users around the world. Based on our analysis about four out of five trip-planning or travel inspiration startups launched during the past four years have failed.

Startups initially covered in Skiftseedlings ranged from just-launched to about a year old. Skiftseedlings is not necessarily a forecast for which platforms travelers will adopt or what software hotels will buy, for example. Rather, its purpose is to highlight how entrepreneurs and venture capitalists are responding to challenges and conflicts facing the global travel industry such as hotels’ direct bookings push and how travel agents are innovating to remain relevant. Skift has covered hundreds of startups during the past four years and more than 150 are part of this analysis.

Nearly 60 percent of the 150 startups that are part of this analysis have failed and are no longer in business. We considered a startup inactive, or dead, if its website no longer exists, its social media presence went silent, and/or its product seemed like it was broken beyond repair.

We’ve seen startup trends come and go. Booking last-minute hotel rooms, as embodied in HotelTonight, seemed to be the buzz of the travel industry a couple of years ago but lately everyone’s attention turned even more intently towards Airbnb and the sharing economy, as well as messaging apps and bots.

Founders Reflect on State of Travel Startup Landscape

Skift has talked to many entrepreneurs in the travel industry during the past four years who founded companies that reflect shifts in consumer behavior. Many founders and CEOs define success differently at various stages. We talked to the CEOs of three startups, AllTheRooms, Rocketrip, and Stayful, which have managed to stick around and keep fighting the fight.

Each of these startups, like many others that have enjoyed longevity and recognition, entered a space that was ripe for disruption. Rocketrip, for example, rewards business travelers for beating their travel budgets and was founded at a time when Google was running a similar program for its own employees. AllTheRooms saw the convergence of established hospitality companies with maturing alternative accommodation sites. Stayful recognized hoteliers needed data to personalize the guest experience and stay connected while offering travelers discounted rates for boutique hotels.

Following are thoughts from each of the three CEOs who reflected on what they’ve learned during the past few years and the challenges and accomplishments they’ve had along the way.

Joseph DiTomaso, co-founder and CEO of AllTheRooms, founded in 2013: “About eight months ago we reached about 7.4 million accommodations that are bookable on our site. That’s about half of total global accommodations market.

“Our vision from day one was to go after every room on the planet and we’re one of the only sites with all traditional hotels but also non-traditional as well. We began to see that AllTheRooms was needed in the market when the Priceline Group acquired Kayak in 2013 and then when Expedia bought Orbitz. And of course the gradual surge of the alternative accommodations market. We believe these markets will converge and we’re already seeing that happen, with the irony that Expedia ended up buying HomeAway for $3.9 billion last year.

“One of our challenges is that you’re everything to everyone and nothing to no one. According to our analysis there are over 450 different types of accommodations sites out there. Search parameters for us are very different compared to, say, vacation rental sites. There’s a different booking experience depending on the type of accommodation. I think Booking.com has probably done the best job at trying to integrate their vacation rental assets.”

Dan Ruch, founder and CEO of Rocketrip, founded in 2013: “We saw the opportunity in the consumer space but nothing like what we’re doing existed in the corporate travel space. The corporate travel industry wasn’t being kept up on its toes.

“There’s just a huge opportunity to innovate and treat employees like consumers. We’re entering a phase of corporate culture where an employer will not tolerate a platform built for them that does not serve their needs.”

Cheryl Rosner, co-founder and CEO of Stayful, founded in 2013: “We didn’t foresee on-demand services becoming big as fast as they did, which is really strange to say in hindsight but that’s the reality of it. We knew in the beginning that instant within the stay was very important, but we didn’t necessarily see the on-demand in the beginning.

“We didn’t initially have a concierge service but we now have one in the new iteration in our app. Our engagement with the concierge service is 42 percent of app users.

“Hotels today are being provided a lot more information. One of the top concerns of boutique hotels and independents is the cost of payroll and a concierge service like Stayful’s provides them with some information to start to think about workflow.

“But use cases are simple to identify and really super hard to execute. Take dinner reservations, for example. We know what we know we’re good at, and what we’re not good at [so] we bring in partners to our network. We view ourselves as a market network. At the center is the user and hotel stay and there are a whole bunch of things that go around that.”

Travel Startup Failures and Survivors

We reviewed startups that were in our Skiftseedlings stories from December 2012 to December 2014 to check their pulses, discover which ones are still alive two to three years after launching, and decipher trends in the travel startup ecosystem.

Trip-planning isn’t the only travel startup category that has been hard hit. Several startup airport apps, booking sites, and hotel software platforms bit the dust as there was a glut of those types of companies chasing the same travelers, brands, and funding.

The surviving startups are perhaps even more telling. Companies like Silvercar for car rentals, LoungeBuddy for airport lounge access and Rocketrip for business travel rewards reached for market opportunities. Others such as JetSmarter for private jet bookings, Xola for tours and activities booking software and Wanderu for bus and train bookings represent niches that were always in demand but never adequately addressed.

These surviving startups shouldn’t be considered success stories, though, since simply surviving for a few years doesn’t necessarily hold promise. The spectrum of survival is broad, with some of these companies actually gaining traction with consumers and major brands while others are surviving off venture capital or barely treading water.

Below are the 150 travel startups Skift covered between 2012 and 2014 that have either died or survived. Five of the 150 startups have been acquired. This list, along with all the startups we’ve covered, isn’t totally comprehensive. These startups do, however, reflect some of the larger trends, for better or worse.

Note that the date Skift wrote about these startups, indicated below, is generally a few months after each company’s official launch date.

150 Startups Covered in Skiftseedlings From December 2012 to December 2014

StartupCovered in SkiftseedlingsTypeActiveInactive
Trip’inionDec-12trip planninginactive
CityhunchDec-12hotel, vr, alt accom bookinginactive
VacayGentDec-12trip planninginactive
WorksurfersDec-12freelance travel writinginactive
ArriveDec-12trip planninginactive
OneairportDec-12airport appinactive
GatherbalDec-12trip planninginactive
MinubeDec-12trip planningactive
SiilkDec-12trip planninginactive
TrablrDec-12booking siteinactive
Jetaport (rebranded in 2016 as Skipper)Dec-12booking siteactive
CityFootprintsDec-12trip planninginactive
RockinShareDec-12trip planninginactive
KarmaDec-12Wi-Fiactive
Airport ChatterDec-12airport appinactive
TripnnestDec-12trip planninginactive
DcoveryJan-13trip planninginactive
SplashJan-13trip planninginactive
SilvercarJan-13car rentalactive
WanderioJan-13booking siteactive
TripciergeJan-13trip planninginactive
BustrippingJan-13booking siteinactive
CoupaflyJan-13flash salesinactive
BanjaryJan-13trip planninginactive
OuttrippinJan-13trip planninginactive
BusbudJan-13booking siteactive
Roam 7Jan-13trip planninginactive
TripThirstyJan-13trip planninginactive
FurlocityJan-13trip planninginactive
Party Like a LocalFeb-13trip planningactive
ForLessGuidesFeb-13trip planninginactive
WanderuFeb-13booking siteactive
Checkin CashinFeb-13travel deals siteinactive
Great Little PlaceFeb-13trip planninginactive
JetZetFeb-13trip planninginactive
JetFreelyFeb-13trip planninginactive
Every Daydream HolidayFeb-13trip planninginactive
ApartumFeb-13vacation rental bookingactive
WhileWairportFeb-13airport appinactive
FitusinFeb-13gym access for travelersinactive
Oh Hey WorldMar-13trip planninginactive
TripTogetherMar-13trip planning active
RambugoApr-13booking siteinactive
LikeWhereAug-13trip planningactive
HotelConfidentialAug-13hotel reviewsinactive
LoungeBuddyAug-13airport lounge bookingactive
WhatsBusyAug-13trip planninginactive
Yoogoin***Aug-13search engine for concertsinactive
Global FoodieAug-13food tourism appinactive
HospitaliteeAug-13hotel networking appinactive
36hrs.inAug-13trip planninginactive
RocketripAug-13business travelactive
SimpleVisaSep-13travel visasactive
iPost-a-CardSep-13postcardsinactive
TheSuitestSep-13hotel search engineinactive
LocishSep-13trip planninginactive
WithlocalsSep-13trip planningactive
RoomingSep-13short term rentalsinactive
OlsetSep-13hotel booking siteactive
FestpopSep-13trip planninginactive
Trip GemsSep-13trip planninginactive
GrataSep-13hotel softwareinactive
BeMyGuestOct-13tours and activitiesactive
NightSwappingOct-13short-term rentalsactive
BookiwooDec-13hotel softwareinactive
TripchiDec-13airport guideactive
ExpenseBotJan-14expense reportingactive
TrippeoJan-14expense reportingactive
LodgifyJan-14hotel softwareactive
JetSmarterFeb-14private jetsactive
TourlancerJul-14tours and activitiesinactive
DetourJul-14mobile audio touractive
DrivrAug-14on-demand rideshareactive
XolaSep-14tours and activities softwareactive
ReserveOct-14mobile restaurant reservationsactive
TribalTouristOct-14tours and activitiesactive
DiscoveroomOct-14short-term rental booking softwareactive
En Bloc HotelsOct-14hotel booking siteactive
TripOnOct-14trip planninginactive
WayfareOct-14trip inspirationinactive
ClassOct-14mobile hotel conciergeinactive
HuaOct-14foreign language learninginactive
WeeleoOct-14foreign currency exchangeinactive
FacebookingOct-14hotel booking siteinactive
HotelUpgradeOct-14hotel upgradesinactive
Essential MobiOct-14mobile Wi-Fi for travelersinactive
UmappedOct-14trip planningactive
HotelPowerOct-14hotel deals siteactive
Humanity.TV^Oct-14travel mediaactive
HelloShiftOct-14hotel employee techactive
Small MapOct-14trip planninginactive
Horizon (formally Oh Hey World)Oct-14short-term rentalsactive
AirZoloOct-14trip planninginactive
TravelogOct-14trip planningactive
KnowRoamingNov-14international callingactive
Round.ioNov-14trip planninginactive
Let’s RideNov-14trip planninginactive
TripHoboNov-14trip planningactive
TheorNov-14trip planninginactive
MeetsNov-14trip planninginactive
Vegas Active Travel GuideNov-14tours and activitiesactive
TriptiveNov-14hotel booking siteinactive
FizzerNov-14travel postcardsactive
TripScannerNov-14business travel managementinactive
HustleBoxNov-14business travel expensesinactive
XTourmakerNov-14travel mobile app designinactive
Book2MeetNov-14meeting space booking siteactive
CorkSharing^^Nov-14tours and activitiesactive
Leave Your LuggageNov-14luggage transferactive
TripMuleNov-14trip planningactive
KaligoNov-14hotel booking siteactive
TicktsNov-14mobile app for event ticketsinactive
TenderfootNov-14trip planningactive
TouchStayDec-14vacation rental softwareactive
OpenhotelierDec-14travel agent booking platformactive
SouvenirDec-14trip planninginactive
FlyrDec-14big data about airfaresactive
RVShareDec-14P2P RV rental platformactive
FunlidayDec-14trip planning active
TastemakersAfricaDec-14packaged tours booking siteactive
OkandaDec-14meeting space booking siteactive
LookBookerDec-14salon appts for business travelersactive
Maps.me*Dec-14offline travel mapsactive
TravelStarterDec-14crowdfunding for tourism projectsactive
FeastlyDec-14local meals for travelersactive
City CoPilotDec-14sharing economy conciergeactive
OwegooDec-14trip planninginactive
HelloTelDec-14trip planningactive
TingglyDec-14tours and activitiesactive
ZaplaDec-14bookings softwareactive
HovelStayDec-14short-term rentalsinactive
ZoolafixDec-14tours and activitiesactive
PaperfliesDec-14flight booking siteactive
BlaniaDec-14trip planninginactive
TripSuitDec-14trip planninginactive
CamprDec-14campsite bookingsactive
BundleDec-14travel photosactive
OnivaDec-14trip planninginactive
TripdaDec-14ride-sharinginactive
EasyGuestsDec-14short-term rental managementactive
Trip WasDec-14social media marketinginactive
FlyStayDec-14airport appinactive
Trip For DogDec-14trip planninginactive
Trampolinn**Dec-14short-term rentalsinactive
BehommDec-14short-term rentalsinactive
FlitwaysDec-14ride-hailingactive
ProxceDec-14hotel softwareactive
RDV VoyageDec-14trip planningactive
MuzeumsDec-14digital museum guidesactive
TerminalDelayDec-14airport appinactive

Source: Skift

*Maps.me was acquired by Mail.ru Group in 2014.
**Trampolinn was acquired by GuestToGuest in 2016.
***Yoogoin was acquired by indiescapes on Dec. 6, 2013.
^ Humanity.TV was acquired by business IT provider Coupa Software on July 20, 2015.
^^CorkSharing was acquired by Mail.ru Group on Nov. 13, 2014

— Sarah Enelow contributed to this story.

Photo Credit: Skift is looking back on the travel startups that have failed and survived during its four years of Skiftseedlings coverage. Pictured here is the team of Viajala, a flight and hotel booking startup for Latin America, at its office in Medellin, Colombia. Dan Peltier / Skift